Researchers hosted a landowners event at The River Laboratory in Dorchester. This event aimed to inform the landowners about the progress of research on the Atlantic Salmon project, and give them the opportunity to directly see what is involved. A fantastic day was had by all!
- African elephants eat both trees and grasses.
- I cover myself in mud and dust to keep my skin protected from the sun – the mud asks like a sunscreen!
- A matriarch
- I am endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in Africa
- I grow to about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) tall
- I am a herbivore, and I feed on tree leaves, buds, grasses, ferns, fruit and fungi
- I vary in length, from 200 to 390 cm depending on my sex
- I can be found across different countries in Asia
- I am a solitary animal which means I like living on my own. However, tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years before becoming independent
- My diet consists of mainly fruit and sometimes leaves
- I can now only be found in parts of Borneo and Sumatra
- I can grow up about 75 kg
- I can be found in Asia and Africa
- I am insectivorous which means I eat ants and termites
- I am a nocturnal animal
- Small salmon (juveniles) eat tiny invertebrates, but as I mature, I occasionally eat other small fish
- My journey to the sea and back is very dangerous, as there are lots of predators who like to eat me
- I can grow up to 1.5 m (6 ft) long!
- I have a huge range due to the migrations that I take part it. You can find me all over the world in the oceans!
- My diet consists almost exclusively of krill
- I can reach a massive 30 metres in length!
- I can be found in the North Pacific Ocean
- I can weigh up to 45 kg, which makes me the heaviest member of the weasel family
- I love living in groups
- I am an opportunist omnivore, which means I eat what I can find. Because I am a bit slow and clumsy, I mainly feed on plant material
- I can be found across in the oceans within the southern hemisphere
- There are lots of different species of my, which can grow from 10 cm in length to a huge 2.7 m!
- I am herbivore, and I eat over 60 different freshwater and saltwater plants
- I inhabit shallow, marshy coastal rivers of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, the Amazon basin, and West Africa
- I can grow up to 4 metres in length!
Non-native species are a problem in the environment when they establish new populations and disperse – i.e. become invasive. A highly invasive, global invader of freshwaters is the common carp, a fish capable of reaching weights of over 30 kg as well as producing a large number of offspring, and is proving to be an ecological and economic pest wherever it goes. They are a highly popular species for catch-and-release recreational angling (see Figure 1), as well as being an important species in aquaculture – but this has resulted in their invasion of all continents except Antarctica. They have been invading British freshwaters since at least the Middle Ages and perhaps as early as the Roman Times.
Invasive carp are well known as ecological engineering species, altering the physical habitats of their invaded freshwaters through their aggressive benthic foraging. However, what is less known is the extent of their competitive interactions with native fish species, especially those that have populations which are already threatened with issues such as habitat loss – like the crucian carp, a relatively diminutive fish in the same family as common carp and with similar benthic feeding habits and functional morphology.
Although generating understandings of the interactions of invasive and alien species can be achieved through field studies alone, a major issue with many field studies on invasive species is that they tend to have high context-dependency. For example, while studies provide interesting and useful information, that information is often only insightful to the study site in question due to, for example, issues such as a lack of data prior to the invasion, limited knowledge on the introduction event, the use of one-off sampling events, and a lack of control in the environmental conditions. In combination, this makes it very difficult to draw strong conclusions beyond the study site and species in question. To overcome these issues, in our study we completed two sets of experiments that would help us understand the competitive interactions of the invasive species (common carp) versus the threatened native species (crucian carp) under relatively controlled conditions to understand the processes that might be producing the patterns in our field data.
The first of these experiments was a set of comparative functional response experiments completed in tank aquaria. As both species shoal, we used the fish in conspecific pairs and at a water temperature that the fish typically experience in Southern Britain during summer (17 oC). We exposed the pairs of fish to a range of prey densities for fixed time intervals to determine their feeding rates. The results showed common carp had much higher feeding rates than crucian carp, suggesting they would monopolise food resources when they are together.
This experiment complemented a much larger and longer experiment completed between 2016 and 2019 in a set of three ponds that were drained prior to the experiment (so they started with no fish) and were then seeded with 100 fish of similar sizes into each pond – one with only crucian carp, one with only common carp and one with 50 of each. Although we could not replicate these treatments, we could follow the feeding interactions of the fish across the experiment through the ecological application of stable isotope analysis. We revealed that when only one species was present in a pond, the extent of the food resources each species consumed – their trophic niches – were similar. When they were together, however, the trophic niches of both species were much larger and were very different from each other (they had ‘divergent niches’). These results indicated that their interactions resulted in them having to feed on a much greater range of prey items than when they were separate, with common carp also having to alter their diet – despite being the superior competitor.
These experimental findings were then used to help us interpret the patterns in our field data from four wild ponds where the two species were present together. In all ponds, their trophic niches were also strongly diverged from each other, as per the experimental ponds, and where the comparative functional response data suggested this was driven by the strong competition pressure from common carp.
The use of the two experiments enabled us to identify that the highly invasive species – common carp – is a strong competitor and one that the threatened native species – crucian carp – finds it difficult to compete with. As common carp become more prevalent across the world’s freshwaters, the outcome for fish species already under threat, such as crucian carp, do not look favourable.
This blog post is provided by Victoria Dominguez Almela, Josie South & Robert Britton and tells the #StoryBehindThePaper for the paper ‘Predicting the competitive interactions and trophic niche consequences of a globally invasive fish with threatened native species‘, which was recently published in the Journal of Animal Ecology.
Last week, Genoveva Esteban and Katie Thompson from SAMARCH hosted two workshops for school children, showcasing SAMARCH research. This was their first workshop as part of Bournemouth University and the Jane Goodall Institute Roots and Shoots programme. Their virtual workshop incorporated a talk on facts about Atlantic salmon, recent research, and interactive elements for the children to get involved in. Their presentation also doubled up as an activity workbook for children to work on from home.
For any questions about the event, or if you are interested in this activity for your school, please contact Katie via email: email@example.com
To celebrate World Ocean Day, High School students from Thomas Hardye School participated in a River Ecology Workshop at The River Laboratory in Dorchester. The students learnt about the importance of freshwater ecosystems and Atlantic Salmon Conservation. It was fantastic to see the students getting invovled!
Genoveva Esteban and Katie Thompson from the Department of Life and Environmental Sciences at Bournemouth University engaged with a Skype a Scientist session to talk about salmon conservation to celebrate the International Year of The Salmon. They spoke to 90 school children about the fascinating world of Atlantic Salmon – the pupils were shocked to learn how large Atlantic Salmon can grow!
British Science Week Virtual Event 5–14th March. Join Genoveva Esteban and Katie Thompson from the Department of Life and Environmental Sciences for our virtual event this British Science Week. We have lots of activities for you, your family, and friends to get involved in; everyone is welcome! From wildlife colouring sheets to a live talk with the The Linnean Society of London, there is something for everyone. All details can be found on our event website: https://bubsw.squarespace.com/. If you have any questions, please email me on firstname.lastname@example.org. We look forward to seeing you there!
Genoveva Esteban and Katie Thompson are excited to announce the launch of a new website, Snapshot Science. They developed this website to virtually showcase the fantastic work of staff and students within the Life and Environmental Science Department (LES) in SciTech. They are will also use this platform as part of a public engagement and outreach event on 9th March 2021 during the British Science Week 2021 along with the WildlifeCraftClub. You can follow The Wessex Portal to keep updated on this new project…and give us a like on Facebook!
Thank you to LES staff and students that contributed to the website.
Across the world, natural ecosystems are becoming increasingly degraded and fragmented. As a consequence, preservation of remaining intact habitats is likely to be insufficient for many species. Instead, the United Nations has identified restoring wild places as a global priority in its upcoming decade on ecosystem restoration.
In response to this, former Bournemouth Life and Environmental Sciences alumnus, Lindsay Biermann, has helped found the Little Environmental Action Foundation (LEAF for short) alongside thirteen fellow young conservationists. LEAF’s mission is to restore some of the most threatened ecosystems across the tropics, whilst using research-driven approaches and 100% native species.
LEAF’s first project is focused on cultivating and planting indigenous trees in coastal Kenya. Situated in the East African Coastal Forest Biodiversity hotspot, this project aims to save the region’s endemic trees that are all predicted to go extinct by 2050 without intervening action. LEAF is working in partnership with Pwani University to recover seeds, grow seedlings and plant out these threatened endemic species around fragments of ancient forest sites called relics. These relics are incredibly important to the future of this region, as currently 96% of native trees have been lost to monoculture plantations and farming.
Using research and expertise, LEAF has begun by employing local graduates and implementing ex situ conservation on the university grounds. From here, we plan to expand our efforts to plant trees close to pre-existing relict sites, educate local people on how to protect these forests and show why their ecosystem services are invaluable. By focusing on native tree species, we aim to increase the survival rates of planted trees and also the long-term recovery of these forests. Collaborative research with university students is also helping to maximise survival rates by studying salt and drought tolerance, as well as optimal planting times.
LEAF is set to officially launch in National Tree week running from 28th November to 6th December. As part of the launch, LEAF is aiming to raise funds to build a new seedling nursery that can propagate and grow rare and endangered tree species. From these donations, LEAF hope to transform the nursery to provide sufficient capacity for future forest restoration projects.
The LEAF charity is remains in its infancy but has ambitious plans to expand its restoration work into ten countries by 2030. Potential projects in Rwanda and India have already been identified, whilst a UK-based school outreach programme is being developed. If you would like to learn more about LEAF’s work, visit their website – www.theleafcharity.com – or follow them on social media @wearetheleaf.
Bacteria and Archaea, collectively known as prokaryotes, are the oldest forms of life on the planet, they’ve been around for over 3500 million years and are ubiquitous, meaning they are found all across the earth in every environment, some of which are adapted to living in extreme environments such as hot springs, hydrothermal vents and glacial environments.
Although some bacteria cause a variety of diseases in plants and animals, including humans, bacteria and archaea are key for a variety of environmental processes, including aquatic photosynthesis by cyanobacteria and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and aquatic environments. As well as this, some prokaryotes form key partnerships with animals and plants, such as nitrogen fixing species in plant roots and gut bacteria which help break down food.
For these reasons, studying bacteria and archaea is particularly important, to understand their use in medicine and combatting disease, their role in the environment and potential to buffer habitat against environmental change, and their importance in biotechnology. Bacteria and archaea are notoriously difficult to study in the lab, as their tiny size and immense diversity in metabolism and optimal requirements make it difficult to culture them. As a result of this, researchers have turned to genome sequencing as a way of studying these organisms.
Collaboration between researchers across the world has led to the ‘Genomes from the Earth’s Microbiomes (GEM) catalogue’, a database which contains over 52, 000 draft genomes, encompassing a large spread of samples collected from all across the world, including agricultural and natural soils, oceanic and freshwater samples, and sample collected from associated human/animal hosts and symbiotes.
The GEM catalogue has been possible despite the difficulty of bacterial culturing due to a revolutionary technique known as metagenomics. Essentially, organisms leave traces of DNA in their environment, such as lakes, soils, etc., which can be picked up in sampling, meaning that growing the species in the lab is not required to study it’s molecular biology. Through this, samples are sequenced and the DNA of various organisms can be detected, which also gives an idea of the biodiversity of the habitat.
The development of the GEM catalogue has provided researchers with an invaluable resource for studying bacteria, from their ecology, molecular genetics to help tackle disease and understand more about their place in the environment. The database has also shown that these microbes are far more diverse and numerous then we once thought, providing a wealth of information for researchers .